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The information on this page was developed by: Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute, www.icpi.org


PERMEABLE PAVER
SPECIFICATION

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SECTION 32 14 13.19

PERMEABLE INTERLOCKING CONCRETE PAVEMENT

(1995 MasterFormat Section 02795)

 

Note: This guide specification for U.S. applications describes construction of permeable interlocking concrete pavers on a permeable, open-graded crushed stone bedding layer (typically No. 8 stone). This layer is placed over an open-graded base (typically No. 57 stone) and sub-base (typically No. 2 stone). The pavers and bedding layer are placed over an open-graded crushed stone base with exfiltration to the soil subgrade. In low infiltration soils or installations with impermeable liners, some or all drainage is directed to an outlet via perforated drain pipes in the subbase. While this guide specification does not cover excavation, liners and drain pipes, notes are provided on these aspects.

 

The text must be edited to suit specific project requirements. It should be reviewed by a qualified civil or geotechnical engineer, or landscape architect familiar with the site conditions. Edit this specification term as necessary to identify the design professional in the General Conditions of the Contract.

 

PART 1    GENERAL

 

1.01      SUMMARY

           A.   Section Includes

1.   Permeable interlocking concrete pavers.

2.   Crushed stone bedding material.

3.   Open-graded subbase aggregate.

4.   Open-graded base aggregate.

5.   Bedding and joint/opening filler materials.

6.   Edge restraints.

7.   [Geotextiles].

B.   Related Sections

1.   Section           [_______]: Curbs.

2.   Section           [_______]: [Stabilized] aggregate base.

3.   Section           [_______]: [PVC] Drainage pipes           

4.   Section           [_______]: Impermeable liner.

5.   Section           [_______]: Edge restraints.

6.   Section           [_______]: Drainage pipes and appurtenances.

7.   Section           [_______]: Earthworks/excavation/soil compaction.

 

1.02      REFERENCES

A.  American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)

1.   C 67, Standard Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Concrete Masonry Units and Related Units.

2.   C 131, Standard Test Method for Resistance to Degradation of Small-Size Coarse Aggregate by Abrasion and Impact in the Los Angeles Machine.

3.   C 136, Method for Sieve Analysis for Fine and Coarse Aggregate.

4.   C 140, Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Brick and Structural Clay Tile, Section 8 – Freezing and Thawing.

5.   D 448, Standard Classification for Sizes of Aggregate for Road and Bridge Construction.

6.   C 936, Standard Specification for Solid Interlocking Concrete Pavers.

7.   C 979, Specification for Pigments for Integrally Colored Concrete.

8.   D 698, Test Methods for Moisture Density Relations of Soil and Soil Aggregate Mixtures Using a 5.5-lb (2.49 kg) Rammer and 12 in. (305 mm) drop.

9.   D 1557, Test Methods for Moisture Density Relations of Soil and Soil Aggregate Mixtures Using a 10-lb (4.54 kg) Rammer and 18 in. (457 mm) drop.

10.  D 1883, Test Method for California Bearing Ratio of Laboratory-Compacted Soils.

11.  D 4254, Standard Test Methods for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density.

C.   Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute (ICPI)

1.   Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavement manual.

 

1.03      SUBMITTALS

A.   In accordance with Conditions of the Contract and Division 1 Submittal Procedures Section.

B.   Manufacturer’s drawing and details: Indicate perimeter conditions, junction with other materials, expansion and control joints, paver [layout,] [patterns,] [color arrangement,] installation [and setting] details. Indicate layout, pattern, and relationship of paving joints to fixtures and project formed details.

C.   Minimum 3 lb (2 kg) samples of subbase, base and bedding aggregate materials.

D.   Sieve analysis of aggregates for subbase, base and bedding materials per ASTM C 136.

E.   Soils report indicating density test reports, classification, and infiltration rate measured on-site under compacted conditions, and suitability for the intended project.

F.   Erosion and sediment control plan.

G.   [Stormwater management (quality and quantity) calculations.]

H.   Permeable concrete pavers:

1.   Manufacturer’s product catalog sheets with specifications.

2.   [Four] representative full-size samples of each paver type, thickness, color, and finish. Submit samples indicating the range of color expected in the finished installation.

3.   Accepted samples become the standard of acceptance for the work of this Section.

4.   Laboratory test reports certifying compliance of the concrete pavers with ASTM C 936.

5.   Manufacturer’s material safety data sheets for the safe handling of the specified materials and products.

6.   Manufacturer’s written quality control procedures including representative samples of production record keeping that ensure conformance of paving products to the project specifications.

H.   Paver Installation Subcontractor:

1.   A copy of Subcontractor’s current certificate from the Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute Concrete Paver Installer Certification program.

2.   Job references from projects of a similar size and complexity. Provide Owner/Client/General Contractor names, postal address, phone, fax, and email address.

3.   Written Method Statement and Quality Control Plan that describes material staging and flow, paving direction and installation procedures, including representative reporting forms that ensure conformance to the project specifications.

 

1.04      QUALITY ASSURANCE

A.   Paver Installation Subcontractor Qualifications:

1.   Utilize an installer having successfully completed concrete paver installation similar in design, material and extent indicated on this project.

2.   Utilize an installer holding a current certificate from the Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute Concrete Paver Installer Certification program.

B.   Regulatory Requirements and Approvals: [Specify applicable licensing, bonding or other requirements of regulatory agencies.].

C.   Review the manufacturers’ quality control plan, paver installation subcontractor’s Method Statement and Quality Control Plan with pre-construction meeting of representatives from the manufacturer, paver installation subcontractor, general contractor, engineer and/or owner’s representative. 

C.   Mock-Ups:

1.   Install a 10 ft x 10 ft (3 x 3 m) paver area.

2.   Use this area to determine surcharge of the bedding layer, joint sizes, lines, laying pattern(s), color(s) and texture of the job.

3.   This area will be used as the standard by which the work will be judged.

4.   Subject to acceptance by owner, mock-up may be retained as part of finished work.

5.   If mock-up is not retained, remove and properly dispose of mock-up.

 

1.05      DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING

A.   General: Comply with Division 1 Product Requirement Section.

B.   Comply with manufacturer’s ordering instructions and lead-time requirements to avoid construction delays.

C.   Delivery: Deliver materials in manufacturer’s original, unopened, undamaged container packaging with identification tags intact on each paver bundle.

1.   Coordinate delivery and paving schedule to minimize interference with normal use of buildings adjacent to paving.

2.   Deliver concrete pavers to the site in steel banded, plastic banded, or plastic wrapped cubes capable of transfer by forklift or clamp lift.

3.   Unload pavers at job site in such a manner that no damage occurs to the product or existing construction

D    Storage and Protection: Store materials in protected area such that they are kept free from mud, dirt, and other foreign materials.

 

1.06      ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS

A.   Do not install in rain or snow.

B.   Do not install frozen bedding materials.

 

1.07      MAINTENANCE

A.   Extra materials: Provide [Specify area] [Specify percentage] additional material for use by owner for maintenance and repair.

B.   Pavers shall be from the same production run as installed materials.

 

PART 2  PRODUCTS

 

Note: Some projects may include permeable and solid interlocking concrete pavements. Specify each product as required.

 

A.   Manufacturer: [Specify ICPI member manufacturer name.].

1.   Contact: [Specify ICPI member manufacturer contact information.].

B.   Permeable Interlocking Concrete Paver Units:

1.   Paver Type: [Specify name of product group, family, series, etc.].

a.   Material Standard: Comply with ASTM C 936.

b.   Color [and finish]: [Specify color.] [Specify finish].

c.   Color Pigment Material Standard: Comply with ASTM C 979.

 

Note: Concrete pavers may have spacer bars on each unit. Spacer bars are recommended for mechanically installed pavers. Manually installed pavers may be installed with or without spacer bars. Verify with manufacturers that overall dimensions do not include spacer bars.

 

d.   Size: [Specify.] inches [({Specify.}mm)] x [Specify.] inches [({Specify}mm)] x [Specify.] inches [({Specify.} mm)] thick.

 

Note: When 3 1/8 in. (80 mm) thick pavers are specified, their compressive strength test results per ASTM C 140 should be adjusted by multiplying by 1.18 to equate the results to that from 2 3/8 in. (60 mm) thick pavers.

 

2.02      PRODUCT SUBSTITUTIONS

A.   Substitutions: No substitutions permitted.

 

2.03      CRUSHED STONE FILLER, BEDDING, BASE AND SUBBASE 

A.   Crushed stone with 90% fractured faces, LA Abrasion < 40 per ASTM C 131, minimum CBR of 80% per ASTM D 1883.

B.   Do not use rounded river gravel.

C.   All stone materials shall be washed with less than 1% passing the No. 200 sieve.

D.   Joint/opening filler, bedding, base and subbase: conforming to ASTM D 448 gradation as shown in Tables 1, 2 and 3 below:

 

Note: No. 89 or finer gradation may be used to fill permeable pavers with narrow joints.

 

Table 1

ASTM No. 8 Grading Requirements

Bedding and Joint/Opening Filler

                          Sieve Size                                    Percent Passing

                        12.5 mm (1/2 in.)                                     100

                        9.5 mm (3/8 in.)                                    85 to 100

                        4.75 mm (No. 4)                                    10 to 30

                        2.36 mm (No. 8)                                     0 to 10

                        1.16 mm (No. 16)                                    0 to 5

 

Table 2

ASTM No. 57 Base

Grading Requirements

                           Sieve Size                               Percent Passing

                        37.5 mm (1 1/2 in.)                               100

                        25 mm (1 in.)                                   95 to 100

                        12.5 mm (1/2 in.)                              25 to 60

                        4.75 mm (No. 4)                                0 to 10

                        2.36 mm (No. 8)                                 0 to 5

 

Table 3

Grading Requirement for ASTM No. 2 Subbase

                            Sieve Size                               Percent Passing

                        75 mm (3 in.)                                       100

                        63 mm (2 1/2 in.)                             90 to 100

                        50 mm (2 in.)                                   35 to 70

                        37.5 mm (1 1/2 in.)                            0 to 15

                        19 mm (3/4 in.)                                  0 to 5 

 

E.   Gradation criteria for the bedding and base:

 

Note: Dx is the particle size at which x percent of the particles are finer. For example, D15 is the particle size of the aggregate for which 15% of the particles are smaller and 85% are larger.

 

1.   D15 base stone /D50 bedding stone < 5.

2.   D50 base stone/D50 bedding stone > 2.

 

2.04      ACCESSORIES

A.   Provide accessory materials as follows:

 

Note: Curbs will typically be cast-in-place concrete or precast set in concrete haunches. Concrete curbs may be specified in another Section. Do not use plastic edging with steel spikes to restrain the paving units.

 

1.   Edge Restraints

a.   Manufacturer: [Specify manufacturer.].

b.   Material: [Pre-cast concrete] [Cut stone] [Concrete].

b.   Material Standard: [Specify material standard.].

 

Note: See ICPI publication, Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavements for guidance on geotextile selection. Geotextile use is optional.

 

2.   Geotextile Fabric:

a.   Material Type and Description: [Specify material type and description.].

b.   Material Standard: [Specify material standard.].

c.   Manufacturer: [Acceptable to interlocking concrete paver manufacturer]]

 

PART 3   EXECUTION

 

3.01      ACCEPTABLE INSTALLERS

A.   [Specify acceptable paver installation subcontractors.].

 

3.02      EXAMINATION

 

Note: The elevations and surface tolerance of the soil subgrade determine the final surface elevations of concrete pavers. The paver installation contractor cannot correct deficiencies excavation and grading of the soil subgrade with additional bedding materials. Therefore, the surface elevations of the soil subgrade should be checked and accepted by the General Contractor or designated party, with written certification presented to the paver installation subcontractor prior to starting work.

 

A.   Acceptance of Site Verification of Conditions:

1.   General Contractor shall inspect, accept and certify in writing to the paver installation subcontractor that site conditions meet specifications for the following items prior to installation of interlocking concrete pavers.

 

Note: Compaction of the soil subgrade should be determined by the project engineer. If the soil subgrade requires compaction, compact to a minimum of 95% standard Proctor density per ASTM C 698. Compacted soil density and moisture should be checked in the field with a nuclear density gauge or other test methods for compliance to specifications. Stabilization of the soil and/or base material may be necessary with weak or continually saturated soils, or when subject to high wheel loads. Compaction will reduce the permeability of soils. If soil compaction is necessary, reduced infiltration may require drain pipes within the open-graded sub base to conform to local storm drainage requirements.

 

a.   Verify that subgrade preparation, compacted density and elevations conform to specified requirements.

b.   Provide written density test results for soil subgrade to the Owner, General Contractor and paver installation subcontractor.

c.   Verify location, type, and elevations of edge restraints, [concrete collars around] utility structures, and drainage pipes and inlets.

2.   Do not proceed with installation of bedding and interlocking concrete pavers until subgrade soil conditions are corrected by the General Contractor or designated subcontractor.

 

3.03      PREPARATION

A.   Verify that the soil subgrade is free from standing water.

B.   Stockpile joint/opening filler, base and subbase materials such that they are free from standing water, uniformly graded, free of any organic material or sediment, debris, and ready for placement.

C.   Edge Restraint Preparation:

2.   Install edge restraints per the drawings [at the indicated elevations].

 

3.04      INSTALLATION

Note: The minimum slope of the soil subgrade should be 0.5%. Actual slope of soil subgrade will depend on the drainage design and exfiltration type. All drainpipes, observation wells, overflow pipes, geotextile (if applicable) and impermeable liner (if applicable) should be in place per the drawings prior to or during placement of the subbase and base, depending on their location. Care must be taken not to damage drainpipes during compaction and paving. No mud or sediment can be left on the base or bedding aggregates. If they are contaminated, they must be removed and replaced with clean materials.

 

A.   General

1.   Any excess thickness of soil applied over the excavated soil subgrade to trap sediment from adjacent construction activities shall be removed before application of the [geotextile] and subbase materials.

2.   Keep area where pavement is to be constructed free from sediment during entire job. [Geotextiles] Base and bedding materials contaminated with sediment shall be removed and replaced with clean materials.

3.   Do not damage drainpipes, overflow pipes, observation wells, or any inlets and other    drainage appurtenances during installation. Report any damage immediately to the project engineer.       

B.   Geotextiles

1.   Place on [bottom and] sides of soil subgrade. Secure in place to prevent wrinkling from vehicle tires and tracks.

2.   Overlap a minimum of [0.3 in (12 in.)] [0.6 m (24 in.)] in the direction of drainage.     

C.   Open-graded subbase and base

1.   Moisten, spread and compact the No. 2 subbase in 4 to 6 in. (100 to 150 mm) lifts [without wrinkling or folding the geotextile. Place subbase to protect geotextile from wrinkling under equipment tires and tracks.]

2.   For each lift, make at least two passes in the vibratory mode then at least two in the static mode with a minimum 10 t (10 T) vibratory roller until there is no visible movement of the No. 2 stone. Do not crush aggregate with the roller.

3.   The surface tolerance of the compacted No. 2 subbase shall be ±2 1/2 in. (± 65mm) over a 10 ft (3 mm) straightedge.

4.   Moisten, spread and compact No. 57 base in 100 mm (4 in.) lift over the compacted No. 2 subbase with a minimum 10 t (10 T) vibratory roller until there is no visible movement of the No. 57 stone. Do not crush aggregate with the roller. 

5.   The surface tolerance the compacted No. 57 base should not deviate more than. ±1 in. (25 mm) over a 10 ft (3 m) straightedge.

 

Note: In-place density of the base and subbase may be checked per ASTM D 4254. Compacted density should be 95% of the laboratory index density established for the subbase and base stone.

 

D.   Bedding layer

1.   Moisten, spread and screed the No. 8 stone bedding material.

2.   Fill voids left by removed screed rails with No. 8 stone.

3.   The surface tolerance of the screeded No. 8 bedding layer shall be ±3/8 in (10 mm) over a 10 ft (3 m) straightedge.

4.   Do not subject screeded bedding material to any pedestrian or vehicular traffic before paving unit installation begins.

E.   Permeable interlocking concrete pavers and joint/opening fill material

1.   Lay the pavers [paving slabs] in the pattern(s) and joint widths shown on the drawings. Maintain straight pattern lines.

2.   Fill gaps at the edges of the paved area with cut units. Cut pavers subject to tire traffic shall be no smaller than 1/3 of a whole unit.

3.   Cut pavers and place along the edges with a [double-bladed splitter or] masonry saw.

4.   Fill the openings and joints with [No. 8] stone.

 

Note: Some paver joint widths may be narrow and not accept most of the No. 8 stone. Use joint material that will fill joints such as washed ASTM No. 9 or No. 10 stone. These smaller stone sizes are recommended for filling joints in pedestrian applications that use 2 3/8 in. (60 mm) thick pavers.

 

5.   Remove excess aggregate on the surface by sweeping pavers clean.

6    Compact and seat the pavers into the bedding material using a low-amplitude, 75-90 Hz plate compactor capable of at least 4,000 lbs (18 kN) centrifugal compaction force. This will require at least two passes with the plate compactor.

7.   Do not compact within 6 ft (2 m) of the unrestrained edges of the paving units.

8.   Apply additional aggregate to the openings and joints, filling them completely. Remove excess aggregate by sweeping then compact the pavers. This will require at least two passes with the plate compactor. 

9.   All pavers within 6 ft (2 m) of the laying face must be left fully compacted at the completion of each day.

10. The final surface tolerance of compacted pavers shall not deviate more than ±3/8 (10 mm) under a 10 ft (3 m) long straightedge.

11. The surface elevation of pavers shall be 1/8 to 1/4 in. (3 to 6 mm) above adjacent drainage inlets, concrete collars or channels.

 

3.05      FIELD QUALITY CONTROL

A.   After sweeping the surface clean, check final elevations for conformance to the drawings.

B.   Lippage: No greater than 1/8 in. (3 mm) difference in height between adjacent pavers.

 

Note: The minimum slope of the finished pavement surface should be 1%. The surface of the pavers may be 1/8 to 1/4 in. (3 to 6 mm.) above the final elevations after compaction. This helps compensate for possible minor settling normal to pavements.

 

C.   The surface elevation of pavers shall be 1/8 to 1/4 in. (3 to 6 mm) above adjacent drainage inlets, concrete collars or channels.

 

3.06      PROTECTION

A.   After work in this section is complete, the General Contractor shall be responsible for protecting work from sediment deposition and damage due to subsequent construction activity on the site.

 

END OF SECTION

 

 

The information on this page was developed by: Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute www.icpi.org

 

 


 

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